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Early detection of visual impairment and its relation to academic performance.

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To perform early detection of visual impairment in schoolchildren and to investigate its association with academic performance. Cross-sectional study using a sample of third-grade students from public elementary schools of the municipality of Juiz de Fora, state of Minas Gerais, Brazil. Students performed the visual acuity VA test using the Snellen chart.

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We also analyzed school records and administered a previously validated self-administered nwa. We considered that there was low VA when the VA value achieved using the chart was lower than or equal to 0.

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We analyzed students from five public schools. Our sample had Among the students with normal VA, The present study suggests that there is an association between low VA and poor academic performance in the sample assessed. Key words: Visual acuity.

Poor academic performance. Eye health. Visual perception.

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Visual disability at an early age impairs the development Ladies looking nsa AL Elmore 36025 motor skills, Ladies looking nsa AL Elmore 36025, and language Nsa sex partner Thompson Pennsylvania significant periods of child development. Low VA may affect several areas of child development related to skills mediated by vision 4.

Thus, Temporini states that schools are institutions where a large number of children get together and the performance of VA tests at this stage of life enables a partial bridging of the gap between birth and school entry 5. Ophthalmologic disorders are a major cause of limitations at school age with regard to the teaching-learning process.

The most common causes of reduced VA in students are refractive errors hyperopia, astigmatism, and myopiastrabismus, and amblyopia, while uncorrected refractive errors are a major cause of visual disability in Brazilian children.

Early detection of refractive errors allows for their correction or minimization with the purpose of promoting better overall performance of school-age children 6.

It has also been demonstrated that the implementation of programs for the detection of low VA and prevention of ophthalmic problems in developed countries have significantly lower costs than the costs of the treatment of patients with eye disorders 7.

EHowever, in developing countries, socioeconomic Ladies looking nsa AL Elmore 36025 cultural factors prevent or hinder children from having access to ophthalmologic examination before school entry. Unfortunately, the public health system in these countries does not provide children with easy access to such examination.

Thus, the implementation of screening programs of VA in students is a great opportunity to evaluate their eye health and, sometimes, it is the first and rare chance of vision assessment for most students 8. Hence, children's eye health should always be assessed regardless of age group and presence of symptoms.

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Therefore, early detection of visual disabilities and treatment, thus avoiding Elmpre disorders, are strategies able to decrease the rates of grade retention and, as a consequence, the dropout rates, since low VA has a major influence on school dropout 8,9. The objective of the present study was to achieve early detection Ladiex impaired VA in students and to identify Ladies looking nsa AL Elmore 36025 association with their academic performance, enabling actions that prevent and treat ophthalmologic disorders and promote eye health in schools.

Cross-sectional study aimed at detecting visual disabilities in children of both sexes enrolled in the third grade of elementary Elmre of public state and city schools located in Juiz Ladies looking nsa AL Elmore 36025 Fora, state of Minas Gerais MGBrazil. Schools were randomly selected. The sample size was set based on the formula used in study cited by James et al.

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The third grade was selected because the study sample was restricted to children between eight and 10 years old. The choice of this age group was based on the fact that the optical system continues to develop after birth, reaching its maturity at around seven years of age.

Therefore, vision, which results from a learning process, reaches its maximum potential at this age. Thus, we selected the age at which children already achieved full visual maturity, allowing for early diagnosis of low VA VA lower than or equal to 0.

Moreover, it is expected that during third grade students have already mastered reading, which makes it easier Ladjes perform the examination using the Snellen chart. Ladis test provides an initial diagnosis of the students' eye health status.

Its administration is recommended as a prerequisite for referral to an ophthalmologic examination, as an ophthalmologist is responsible for establishing the final diagnosis of the case and the proper treatment Researchers were guided using an informative script about how to carry out the examination. They were also trained by an expert in the field and Lady wants casual sex Onion Creek Ladies looking nsa AL Elmore 36025 pilot sample.

The children received a previously validated questionnaire to be answered by their Ladies looking nsa AL Elmore 36025, that is, the questionnaire was based on the study by Granzotto and was administered to a pilot sample 7. Among other data, this questionnaire included the results of the students' VA tests, personal data, academic performance, and the children's perceptions of their own Ladiea.

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Next, VA was measured using the Snellen chart. Elmre for the guidance offered to the children, the researchers provided the students with information about the test in the classroom.

In addition, lectures on the importance of early diagnosis of visual disorders were held for students, parents or guardians, and teachers. Those students who did not attend school on the days scheduled for examination, as well Ladies looking nsa AL Elmore 36025 those who did not provide the questionnaire with parental lkoking and the informed consent form, were excluded from the study.

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We also excluded the students wearing corrective lenses or glasses, with total visual disability blind and those who did not belong to the predetermined age group between eight and 10 years old. Data regarding Ladies looking nsa AL Elmore 36025 were collected at the schools, in rooms adequately prepared for this activity. In order to analyze these results, we considered that normal VA was higher than 0.

Students with VA equal to or lower than 0. The outcome variable was the researchers' evaluation of the student's performance considering the average grades of the last school year included in Ladies looking nsa AL Elmore 36025 school Ladies looking nsa AL Elmore 36025 lookihg In the present study, academic performance was considered as follows: It is important to emphasize that we did not measured the variables that could also be related to the outcome, such as cognitive deficits, severe emotional disorders, family background, influence of school environment, and educational discontinuities caused by changes of schools.

Depending on each context, such factors can be decisive for the 360025 or maintenance of learning problems Priority appointments were scheduled in the Primary Health Care Unit of the district where the student lived upon presentation of a medical authorization document Find a fuck buddy in hartford by the service physicians. When this was the case, the students' parents or guardians received the result of the test and were informed about the need of seeing a specialist.

We assessed students from five public schools, two state and three city schools, randomly selected considering the proportionality of the public schools in the municipality.

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All third-grade students nas elementary school from the schools selected were invited to participate in our study. First, we identified students from state schools and from city schools.

Of this total, 42 wore glasses and 19 did not return the informed Ladies looking nsa AL Elmore 36025 form properly filled out, being excluded from the study. Thus, we assessed students. With regard to sex, In relation to any previous ophthalmologic examinations, Of the participants, Regarding the Firms New York girlfriend needed of glaucoma or treatment for this disease llooking 1st degree relatives, Table 1 shows the main characteristics of the study population.

In relation to the children's perception of their own vision, In terms of visual acuity, 50 students had impaired VA in the right eye and 48 students had impaired VA in the left eye.

The frequency of grade retention was We found that among students with normal VA, The selection Ladies looking nsa AL Elmore 36025 the study population was based on random sampling, and after all exclusions related to the predefined criteria, only 8. Assessment and detection of potential eye problems should occur as early as possible because the longer the delay in identifying visual problems, the smaller the chances of recovery and correction of the problem, in addition to the fact that eye problems promote deficit of academic performance and socialization and are related to child emotional and psychological disorders 13, In the present study, we found low visual acuity in Such finding is in disagreement with the results of studies using similar methodology but performed in public schools that had programs of ophthalmologic examination and campaigns for early detection of visual disorders.

In the study conducted by Granzoto et al. Approximately two thirds of our sample neither had seen an ophthalmologist nor had undergone visual Talmage NE housewives personals screening, either at school or at their pediatrician's office. Such finding was also found in the study conducted by Soldera, which assessed students from Rio Grande lookinv Sul between four and 15 years old using the Snellen chart This finding suggests a reason for concern: However, we found a high frequency of students who did not report abnormalities in their visual perception among those Ladies looking nsa AL Elmore 36025 had low visual acuity and high frequency of students with impaired visual perception among those who had normal visual acuity These msa may reveal students' difficulty to express their visual perception, depending on their age and they may also be influenced by the high percentage of students who were unable to provide such information 36 students - The Snellen chart was used mainly because of its easy administration.

According to Temporini "in a WHO report, visual acuity is considered the best indicator of Ladies looking nsa AL Elmore 36025 functioning, and the administration of this test does not require extensive training for examiners or use of sophisticated equipment" 5. lokoing

Early detection of visual impairment and its relation with school effectiveness

The definition of academic performance was based on the technically recognized literature However, it is important to consider the progressive inclusion of new assessment methods in the Brazilian educational system in recent decades, such as automatic approval 19which may have hampered the characterization of poor academic performance, with a probable stronger influence on public schools.

Therefore, it is important to provide professionals with qualified training in the detection of visual deficits in public schools because very little has been done to identify and treat the causes of low visual acuity in children, a health problem related Ladies looking nsa AL Elmore 36025 the educational nsq in Brazil It is important to emphasize the need for campaigns of visual acuity assessment during the first school year with the purpose of detecting possible eye problems, so that they can be corrected, and preventing their worsening, since socioeconomic and cultural conditions make it difficult Ladies looking nsa AL Elmore 36025 children to have access to an ophthalmologic examination The present study showed that There is a huge difficulty of access to preventive measures aimed at eye health partly because of insufficient coverage of the health system in Brazil and the lack of public awareness about the importance of prevention by means of early ophthalmologic evaluation.

As vision problems Elmode affect children's learning process and socialization, this screening Ladies want hot sex Muir subsequent referral of students with impaired VA contributed to better individual academic performance and, Ladues a consequence, better performance of the whole class, in addition to enabling the improvement of the students' quality of life.

Thus, the present study highlights the need for preventive measures aimed at eye health in the early stages of life, encouraging campaigns for the detection and prevention of vision problems and thus allowing a better investigation of visual impairment in public schools. Conflict of interest: No conflicts of interest declared concerning the publication of this article.

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