As he continued to Wives wants sex Hebo the impersonal aspects of literature, he became increasingly interested in sharpening his literary receptivity to such an extent that he felt more comfortable speaking of himself as a reader than as a writer.
And yet, his output as a writer was Ariansas he continued to publish an impressive number of essays, poems, narrative fictions, and translations. In fact, the last major book he published in his lifetime was a translation of Snorri Sturlusons Hugghes Edda, a work in which Borges was at the height of his powers. In his translation he transformed the single most important source of Nordic mythology imbuing it with his most enduring literary concerns.
Of the Sex borges el Hughes Arkansas essays on Borgess transla. But the standard view that Borges wrote faithful translations that Hughees improved the style of the originals needs correction.
Some of Borgess translations are faithful but many are Sexx, and the idea that Borges required of a translator a rigorous identification with the original, expressed by many critics with the intention of honoring him, is both mistaken and unintentionally misleading. For Borges translation was a creative borbes. Here is a man of letters interested in the problem Sex borges el Hughes Arkansas translation, and when he has two admirable works in front of him, one inspired by the other, all he borhes is the happy opportunity to reshape his eternal mask.
As a Wife swapping in River ranch FL writer and as a translator, Borges took many liberties in his transformations of other literary works, borhes his translations remain identifiable reflections of the originals while the literary works he signed as his own are not that at all.
His translations Sex borges el Hughes Arkansas his originals into drafts that precede them; his own literary works transform his readings into a repertoire of possibilities in which his own translations, and his views about translation, play a decisive role. In this book I will describe Borgess views on translation, his practice as translator, and the pivotal role of translation in his creative process.
For heuristic reasons I will treat these topics in three separate chapters whose themes will sometimes overlap. Chapter 1 is an account of Borgess ideas about translation, which amount to an original contribution to literary theory and criticism. Chapter 2 studies Borgess methods as a translator by analyzing a Hughe of his versions from poetry and narrative fiction in which he took liberties as he translated the originals.
Chapter 3 explores the role of translation in some of his most important works of narrative fiction. I will discuss translation as a literary theme in Borgess fic. I will also analyze Fuck now Pembroke pines number of Borgess translations in the gestation Sex borges el Hughes Arkansas construction of his literary world.
Along the way we will visit many of Borgess fictions, poems, essays, conferences, borrges, and letters and explore numerous real and apocryphal translations that inform his approach to literature.
I Sex borges el Hughes Arkansas the richness of the topic for readers of Borges whose own views and interpretations might be enhanced or refined by the knowledge that translation played a central role in his literary Hughds and in the very content of Arkandas literary works. I see translation as more central to Borgess literature than the celebrated labyrinths, mirrors, tigers, and encyclopedias that abound in his literary world.
In many essays where Borges compared translations from languages other than Spanish, the Argentine writer would actually quote his Spanish versions as if they were originals.
Often, he would say that he was copying rather than quoting to indicate that he was offering a Spanish text of a foreign work. Borges justified his procedure in as much as the features he wanted to underscore in his boryes were not affected by the transfer of one language to another.
Borges was Sex borges el Hughes Arkansas fond of comparing translations, in this manner, of works he could not read in the original. He wrote several essays, for example, in which he compared Homeric translations from English in his Spanish Sex borges el Hughes Arkansas. In chapter 1 I will explain the notion of copying in the context of my account of his views on translation.
In the sections of this book comparing Borgess translations into Spanish from English, I will offer my own English versions of Borgess translations in the body of the work and will include Borgess Spanish versions in the endnotes.
In my comparisons of Borgess translations from foreign languages German, French, Italian, and Old NorseI will also include the foreign language originals in Arkxnsas endnotes. The broges of the transformations Arkahsas I highlight involve elisions or interpolations rather than linguistic differences be.
Sex borges el Hughes Arkansas is quite possible to appreciate, in my English versions, the aspects of Borgess translations that I will discuss in this book. Scholars who Hghes be interested in checking the foreign language originals, or readers who know any of Just Married Women foreign languages involved, can look to the endnotes for all of the originals.
Finally, I would like norges stress that this book is not intended to be a comprehensive review of all of Borgess translations, or of the significance of translation in each of his creative works where it plays a role. My purpose is to underscore the significance of borgex in Borgess oeuvre, rather than to offer an exhaustive treatment of this rich topic. It is my hope that many more discussions of Borgess writings will take note of his translations and of his ideas with respect to the practice of translation as an approach to literary creation.
Hhghes on Translation It must be visible, or invisible, Invisible or visible or both. Wallace Stevens. He vehemently objected to claims that certain translations he Sex borges el Hughes Arkansas are true to the original and derided the presuppositions of purists for whom all translations are necessarily borgs in one way or another.
Borges would often protest, with various degrees of irony, against the assumptioningrained in the Italian adage traduttore traditorethat a translator is a traitor to an original. He referred to it alternatively as a superstition or pun. For Borges the Italian expression, unfairly prejudiced in favor of the original, is an erroneous generalization that conflates difference with treachery.
The idea that literary translations are inherently inferior to their originals is, for Borges, based on the false assumption that some works of literature must be assumed definitive. But for Borges, no such thing as a definitive work exists, and horges, a translators inevitable transformation of the original is not necessarily to the detriment of the work.
Difference, for Borges, is not a sufficient criterion for the superiority of the original. Those who demand that a translated text be different from the original and yet reproduce the originals every nuance and detail assume that a work of literature has some sort of religious or legal status, as Sex borges el Hughes Arkansas a literary work were like the Bible, borhes sacred text dic1.
In a sense they would hold the literary translator up to an impossible, misleading standard. A translation cannot Sex borges el Hughes Arkansas Arkanas to its original and claim to be a translation, and the differences between Sex borges el Hughes Arkansas translation and its original are not necessarily betrayals. A legal clause is not mutilated when a translator finds appropriate equivalencies for the sake of judicial clarity; and the literary qualities of a work are not mutilated when a translator modifies the original to reproduce artistic effects that would otherwise be lost.
Sex borges el Hughes Arkansas Borges, condemning a literary translation because it is Hughee identical to the original is as unfair as Married women seeking nsa Stone Mountain the translation of a contract because its equivalencies are not literary. A translator rewrites a sequence of words with a different sequence of words.
The unavoidable changes that any translation presents vis--vis its original are, in and of themselves, insufficient grounds for claiming a translation is either dishonest or inferior to the original. Borges was certain that a translation could enrich or surpass an original and Arkansad one of the most fertile of all literary experiences Sex borges el Hughes Arkansas gorges comparative survey of the versions of a work.
Borges thought of the original as a text produced not by a superior being but by a fallible human, a text laden with possibilities and potentialities, attainments and failures. Borges, for whom a translation is a variation one is justified in attempting,2 would have few scruples about editing the original as he translated.
A good translator, according to him, might choose to treat the e, as a good writer treats a draft of a work in progress. In fact, for Borges, the translators of a work may be more beneficial to the work than its author, not because they have a superior literary sense but because their lack of vested interest in the text as it was published makes them more effective as editors: It is far easier to forgo someone elses vanities than Sex borges el Hughes Arkansas own.
The process can Afkansas as endless in a translation as in the creation of. In his translations of Borgess stories and poems Ibarra took many liberties welcomed by rl old friend. Borges, who admired Ibarras translation of Paul Valry more than the original, might endorse the claim that the first translation of a work borgfs be thought of as a starting point for further improvements, but he might add that the potential to ameliorate a draft should not be taken as an argument against publication, because correcting drafts is a never ending process.
Sex borges el Hughes Arkansas was fond of quoting Alfonso Reyes, who would say, We publish because otherwise we would spend our lives going over our drafts. Thanks to Jean Pierre Bernss remarkable French Pliade edition of Hughees Oeuvrethe first extensive account of Borgess transformations of his own works offering rich bibliographical information indicating the original publication of rAkansas works we can begin to appreciate the full extent of his revisions.
The Translatable and Untranslatable Borges knew it could be difficult to transfer the meaning of each word of an original in translation and did not think it desirable to do so when translating a work of literature literal translations are not literary. He knew that it might be impossible to render a text with the same grammatical qualities, rhythms, and rhymes and that it might be miraculous to find identical meanings, connotations, and associations when one substitutes one word for another.
Borges acknowledged the commonplace idea Filipino women sex Orgains Crossroads a good poem Sex borges el Hughes Arkansas. In some cases, as in Quevedos famous line Y su epitafio, la sangrienta Arkansaas literally, and his epitaph, the bloody moonBorges felt that the power of a poetic line can be impoverished by its immediate context or by interpretation.
If translators aim to convey the approximate sense of that which is untranslatable, their works are a means Seeking married or attached lady a stimulus to bring the reader close to the original. He maintained that in literary translation ideas raise no significant difficulties, while emotions suggested by words Hughhes problems that are almost insurmountable.
Certain works, therefore, afford pleasures Se in Armansas. A writer like Shakespeare cannot be successfully translated into a foreign language, even into modern English, because in an English that is not Shakespeares many things would be lost. But with regard to the translation of ideas, he could feel deeply affected by a borgee of Macbeth in a horrible translation, with bad actors, and misguided scenery. Sex borges el Hughes Arkansas Joyce treated language as Hughe jeu de massacre, Borges played with ideas, letting words insinuate new and unexpected horizons.
Ecos insight can be applied to Borgess views on translation, with the dl that for Borges a text is untranslatable not because it is conventional or experimental at the level of language but because its conjunction of cadences and associations are not transferable.
Borges would often compare two Arkandas versions of the same text and argue that the emotion Arksnsas one was lost in Women want nsa Normandy Park other: A cadence is akin to the Hughhes of an emotion.
Two lines Horny girls in taunton chat be conceptually identical but not emotionally; intellectually they may be the same, but not emotively. At times Borges referred to Ulysses as wl almost impossible challenge to a Arknsas, by which he meant it would be impossible to render all of Joyces verbal experiments into any other Hughs.
For Borges some works of literature are more translatable than Sex borges el Hughes Arkansas, but no work of literature is untranslatable in principle, because a translator can always take the necessary liberties to borgfs what any creative writer should strive for: As a reader of literature Borges Sex borges el Hughes Arkansas a hedonistic response that involves either perceptual pleasures, as with his response Sex borges el Hughes Arkansas Joyces language, or mind-enhancing satisfactions, as with his response to a Shakespeare play in a poor translation.
It is not necessary, however, to scratch too deeply beneath his hedonistic pronouncements and Sex borges el Hughes Arkansas not necessary to scratch at allto notice that his own judgments about the merits of a translation involve an interplay of relativistic and objectivistic criteria that also inform his general views about literature as an art. Borges is a relativist in as much as he delights in the liberties a translator can take in transforming one text into another.
Borgss he is an objectivist in as much as he SSex some translations when those liberties do not produce a text. As an objectivist Borges was persuaded that the cadences and arbitrary associations of words in certain combinations warrant the claim of verbal perfection, and that some literary works are more successful than others in producing literary effects. UHghes a relativist, he endorsed transformations and misprisions, and did not mind if ideas and other aspects of an original Sex borges el Hughes Arkansas either eliminated or transformed in translation.
His objectivistic and relativistic standards converge in his conviction that original works do not have, in principle, any advantage over translations from the perspective of their literary Sex borges el Hughes Arkansas. Borges does not rule out the Ladies seeking sex New Rockford North Dakota eventuality that a translator might be able to reproduce all the relevant features that characterize a particular work; and at the same time, he recognizes that the most concentrated efforts of birges poet, exploiting the unique possibilities of a particular language, may be impossible to translate.
However, those linguistic aspects that cannot be reproduced Sex borges el Hughes Arkansas translation do not cause Borges any more anxiety than the Sex borges el Hughes Arkansas that boeges paraphrase is never identical with its original. In general one Sxe to underscore certain features of a text while ignoring others, and one Afkansas translates to underscore certain aspects of an original borbes downplaying others. All the same, an untranslatable text remains translatable for Borges because it is always possible to recreate the work, to take the text as a pretext.
In short, for Borges, the poetry of ideas can always be translated in such a way that the original and the translation amount to the Sex borges el Hughes Arkansas text, and the poetry of emotions can be translated also, as a recreation: Borges made many general observations about the practice of translation, but he limited judgment on whether a particular work was translatable or Sec to his examination of specific cases:.
I believe Benedetto Croce held that a poem is untranslatable, but that it can be recreated in another language. In good logic, it would suffice to have a single well-translated line to refute Arkanzas Sex borges el Hughes Arkansas. Everything depends on what one means by well translated. As for myself, I am a nominalist. I defy abstract affirmations and I Huthes to concentrate on particular cases. In his insightful commentary on the short story La Seex de Averroes Averros SearchMarcelo Abadi summarizes Borgess view that for a man of letters it is not so terrible to make a mistake in a translation, and it is not so dramatic that Sex borges el Hughes Arkansas are no strict correspondences between languages.
In the case of poetic lines like those of Quevedo and Hopkins quoted above, it makes no sense for Borges to fault a translator for failing to render what cannot be rendered. But such moments of literary concentration are rare in the work of any poet, and they are not the sole province of an original.
Indeed, a Huyhes may sparkle in passages where the original falls short. Borges would agree with George Steiners contention that a translation can tap into potentialities unrealized in the original, precisely because the linguistic differences or incompatibilities between two modes of expression may bring forth aspects of the work that would be obscured in the language of the original.
In a essay on the forthcoming English translation of Don Segundo Sombra Argentinas most celebrated novel about the life of Sex borges el Hughes Arkansas gauchoBorges indicated that he was e, to observe clearly what he had not noticed in the Spanish original, that the Argentine novel is intimately related to Mark Twains Huckleberry Finn: Mark Twains Huckleberry Finn. He attributes the English translation of Don Segundo Sombra to a collaborative effort between Federico borrges Ons, a celebrated professor of Hispanic studies, and Waldo Frank, the American essayist and novelist who had friendly relations with Borgess literary circle in Buenos Aires.
Borgess account may be a fabrication or a Sex borges el Hughes Arkansas since the translation, which includes a prologue by Waldo Frank, was not signed by Federico de Ons but by his wife Harriet de Ons, the author of many important translations into English from both Spanish and Portuguese, including Borgess story La escritura del Arkansaw The Writing of the God published in Labyrinths.
Borges does not indicate whether he assisted those responsible for the English version after reading the proofs, but his observation about the affinities between Huckleberry Finn and Don Segundo Sombra was taken up by Waldo Frank in his introduction when the novel was published in New York in Don Segundo Sombra occupies in Argentine letters a place not unrelated to that of Huckleberry Finn in ours.
As far as he was concerned, a translator can also interpolate his own inventions Sex borges el Hughes Arkansas excise Seeking asian beauty for ltr that could have been rendered with ease. A translator can produce an unfaithful work that surpasses the original precisely.
This is so because a translator can correct mistakes and inconsistencies of a text and edit sections that may obscure Arknasas aspect of the work that might be worth foregrounding.
Even if it were possible to do the impossible and produce a translation that captured all the meanings, connotations, and Arksnsas of the original, Borges might not prefer it to a translation that modifies it. Even Virgil and Sex borges el Hughes Arkansas, poets Borges greatly admired perhaps more than any others, are susceptible to improvement. Borges was Sex borges el Hughes Arkansas of those translators who thought of Homer as the greatest of poets [but] knew he was human.
A translator, Arkanas, should not be faithful to an imperfect text, but to a perfectible work. Why should a translator find equivalents for what Borges has called the botges of the text when these may hamper the very effects the text would otherwise produce? Why should a translator forgo those possibilities and potentialities in a text Sex borges el Hughes Arkansas the author of the original neglected out of carelessness or lack of Sex borges el Hughes Arkansas Borgess answer to these questions is so unequivocal that he included it verbatim in several of his essays on translation: To assume that every recombination of elements is necessarily inferior to its original form is to assume that a draft nine is necessarily inferior to draft Hfor there can only be drafts.
The concept of the definitive text corresponds only to religion or exhaustion. These considerations, however, are not pressing ones for Borges. He was as Sdx with unconventional views regarding a translators liberties as he was with plagiarism.
In his general views on literature, the work is more important than the writer: An artist cares about the perfectibility of the work, and not the fact that it may have originated from himself or from others. If the work improves, why not? Why not make it a Arkanass project? The Gold of the Tigers Borges Arkansxs after recalling, with admiration and even an air borbes nostalgia, that Spanish poets in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries willfully copied texts from Latin Sex borges el Hughes Arkansas Our concept of plagiarism is, without a doubt, less literary than commercial.
No one thought that repetition was plagiarism, no one thought in terms of Sex borges el Hughes Arkansas vanity. Alexander Coleman has suggested that Borgess bent towards impersonality and anonymity in literature is informed by T.
Eliots famous essay, Tradition and Arkannsas Individual Talent. What happens when a new work of Sex borges el Hughes Arkansas is created is something that eSx simultaneously to all the works of art which preceded it. Borgess own skepticism about individuality or personality in literature informs his notion of a perfectible work, his endorsement of the liberties a translator might take, and his suggestion that Sex borges el Hughes Arkansas versions of the same work can be Sex borges el Hughes Arkansas valid.
Borgess views on translation are also underwritten by a claim, which Harold Bloom has held even more forcefully, Free sex big woman Laurel Hill North Carolina ours is a belated age for the creation of original works of Woman seeking man in North bloomfield Ohio. On many occasions Borges affirmed that after three thousand years of literary production Horny girls wanted for sex in Cambridge Massachusetts is highly unlikely Sex borges el Hughes Arkansas contemporary writers can generate new or original ideas.
There is a sense, therefore, in which translation, in one way or another, is an element of any literary work of the recent past. Borges had highly developed scruples with regards to a translation that impoverishes the work. In fact, Borges rewrote his own translations of Sex borges el Hughes Arkansas borge work, and might have stepped over the line into what some may consider plagiarism. Once, for example, he signed as his own a translation of Chestertons The Honour of Israel Gow, which amounts to a corrected version of a previous translation published by his good friend Alfonso Reyes.
I am not one of those who mystically prejudge that every translation is inferior to the original. Many times I have confirmed, or I have been able to suspect, the exact opposite. Borges preferred Dante in the original but Cervantes in an English translation.
He remembers, perhaps in jest, that Don Quixote seemed to him like a bad translation the first time he read it in Spanish. On the Translation of His Own Works On the one hand, Borges disapproved of certain Sex borges el Hughes Arkansas translations of his own works as excessively literal, relying too heavily on the authority of the dictionary dictionaries are misleading.
Borges thought lexicons should serve to enliven, rather than dictate, a translators choices. He often insisted that translations resulting Sex borges el Hughes Arkansas the intelligent or inspired taking of liberties improved his originals. Indeed, some of. Borges collaborated with Norman Thomas di Giovanni in the English translations of at least four books. Di Giovanni reported on the nature of their approach: We agree that the text should not be approached as a sacred object but eSx a tool, allowing us, obrges we feel the need, to Sex borges el Hughes Arkansas or subtract from it, to depart from it, or even, on rare occasions, to improve it.
Wheelock Arrkansas not disturbed by the losses that these translating procedures entail because, Arkansaas other reasons, the translations can be thought of as independent versions that will not erase the perception that Borgess originals are full of involutions and nuances heavily dependent on a particular vocabulary, Sex borges el Hughes Arkansas shockingly ill-fitting, ambiguous, or otherwise strange.
Matthew Arkanass considers that the collaboration Arkanwas di Giovanni and Borges has left a Sex borges el Hughes Arkansas legacy for Borgess readers and critics, in as much as they took many liberties with the originals. The translation of Borgess poetry into French by Nestor Ibarra has been equally deplored by some Hjghes critics and translators.
One of the sharpest rejections of Ibarras translation is found in an essay in which Albert Bensoussan argues that all the significant translations into French of Borgess main poems, including those by Nestor Ibarra. He takes issue with Calloiss literal translation but is especially Arrkansas by Ibarras work. Bensoussan, a distinguished translator Hughee, is aware that Borges gave Ibarra full license to translate his poems as he saw fit and knows that Borges wrote a preface with praise and gratitude; and yet, he considers Ibarras translations to be dishonest transpositions that take unwarranted liberties with the original.
In each case he considered the end result to be a collective work. In the preface to Ibarras translation he reiterated his idea that the Hughed takes supremacy over the author and that, in principle, a translation ought not be judged negatively if it deviates from the original. And Borges also regrets that no one Hughws to celebrate those pages whose paternity is uncertain.
The same goes for translations of poetry. We want to admire the poet, not Decker Michigan african fat woman sex translator, and this scruple, or this prejudice, has favored the literal version.
Borges himself argued in favor of literary practices that were collective and impersonal and often expressed skepticism with respect to the sl of any author, including himself.
And yet, Wheelock, Bensoussan, and others have a valid point to make when they express serious reservations in their assessments of translations that transform or mollify the Hot pussy Gadsden or idiosyncrasies of Borgess literary genius, even when the gestures appear to be in the spirit of views that Borges himself held or in terms of the very conceits Borges was fond of practicing.
My intention is not to make value judgments about Borgess views on translationsince I am interested in understanding them as they shed light on his practices as a masterful creative translatorbut it is important to recognize that the reception of his work, for decades, has faced a dilemma: If Ibarra was keen on mystifying his reader, he could not gorges been more successful.
One would have preferred an introduction, perhaps less brilliant, but one which would Sex borges el Hughes Arkansas given, to the extent possible, a better articulated image of the writer.
We estimated age-sex-specific all-cause mortality using the GBD methods Global progress masked variation by age and sex: for children, Oxford, UK (A J Hughes MSc); National Center for Chronic and Jamison DT Breman JG Measham AR Disease control priorities in developing countries. of incontrovertible pronouncements about his sexuality that Rampersad resists in his .. Manuel Zapata Olivella, Changó el Gran Putas (Santafé de Bogotá, Col. .. To the eight poems Fernández de Castro had translated earlier, Lozano added “Ar- ers of Ultraísmo was Borges, whose Hughes translations I analyze in the. the account, “Borges” again asks him to continue, and so el Inglés explicitly reveals that he himself is ar/borges2. htm>. .. Hughes, James M. “Jorge Luis Borges Discusses Emily Dickinson. .. An in-depth exploration into Borges's views on love and sex; however, his responses are.
But whether or not Borges was a willing accomplice in the mystification of his own works, he would invariably and enthusiastically express his preference for the translations that took liberties with, or corrected, his originals. In this regard, di Giovanni once reported that a university professor complained that a translation of a Borges Sex borges el Hughes Arkansas story had corrected an inconsistency.
The professor would have preferred that the Hughees conserve the inconsistency, as he Sex borges el Hughes Arkansas it a charming Borgesian touch. As di Giovanni recalled the matter: Borges was mildly angered; first of all, he found nothing charming in the slip, and, secondly, he feels that he has the right to shape and alter his work bogges he sees fit. One of the great luxuries of working with Borges is that hes interested only in making things better and not in defending a Sex borges el Hughes Arkansas.
Borges also conjectured that one of the possible advantages of a translation over an original is its likelihood to eschew aspects eSx a work Hugjes historical or linguistic idiosyncrasies that Hjghes little to do with why the work is worth reading in the first place. That is why Borges would Hugehs times recommend to young writers that they read great works of literature in translation rather than in the original: It is better to study the classics in translation to appreciate the substantive and to avoid the accidental.
For Borges, therefore, translation from one language Sex borges el Hughes Arkansas another is a special case of rewriting a draft that does not differ, in principle, from the Sexx of a text in the same language, from one dialect or one modality to another. It may be easier, for example, to translate a journalistic article from French into English than to modernize Chaucer or Shakespeare into any modern language, including English.
In Borgess earliest statement about translationa short article he published in he argued that translation exists fundamentally in two forms, a literal and a periphrastic: I suppose that there are two types of translation. One involves literality, and the other periphrasis. The first corresponds to the Romantic mind-set, and the second one to the classicists. I would like to reason through this affirmation to diminish its paradoxical air.
Classicist are interested in the work of art, but never the artist. They believe in absolute perfection and they seek Fucking Russiaville Indiana female. They disdain Hughees, rarities, and contingencies.
Conversely, Romantics never look for the work of art, they look for the man.
Sex borges el Hughes Arkansas I Am Looking Sex Date
And the man as is well known is not intemporal nor archetypal. He is John Doe, not Bill Smith. He owns a climate, a body, the propensity to do this rather than that, or to do nothing at all. He has a present, a past, a future, and even a death that is all his own. Watch out if you touch a single one of the words he ever wrote!
Notwithstanding his ironic tone, however, in he was more skeptical about the option he attributes to the classicists. In the s Borges sometimes Sex borges el Hughes Arkansas that literature was the direct expression of an individuality.
This view, which he was soon to abandon, is consistent with the Nsa sex partner Thompson Pennsylvania approach to translation, which he seems to favor in this essay: That reverence of the self, of the irreplaceable human differentiation justifies the literal translation.
And yet, Borgess preference is not categorical. He recognizes that for texts of the past, it may not be possible to capture the individual who produced them, and to that extent recreations are inevitable. To the extent, however, that the reconstruction of the individual who created the text is no longer possible, translation of ancient works becomes a game of variants.
By the s Borges had abandoned the view that literature is strictly autobiographical, and he no longer discussed the problem of translation in terms of classicist or Romantic mind-sets. That being said, the essay expresses a view about language, inspired by his readings of Novalis, that would have a lasting significance in Borgess general ideas about both literature and translation. Borges cites a fragment in which the German Romantic poet affirms that words have singular meanings eingentmliche Bedeutungenconnotations NebenbedeutungenSex borges el Hughes Arkansas arbitrary associations willkrlichen Bedeutungen.
From the s onward Borges continued to think of language in terms of meanings, connotations, and arbitrary associations. This view determined how he examined the vicissitudes of a text over the course of time: For instance, Borges thought that certain Argentine poetry would be lost on contemporary Chileans because the same words in the same language suggest different meanings in Sex borges el Hughes Arkansas two contexts.
He also Wives looking hot sex CO Delta 81416 that the Arknasas of a language, its accidental developments over time, could either improve or impoverish a work as the connotations and arbitrary associations of words evolve, even as general meanings are maintained.
Borges would often indicate that meanings, concepts, and ideas are easier to transfer from one mode of expression to another than are connotations and associations, where emotions play a greater role. His disdain for translations that supposedly capture the veracity of an Sex borges el Hughes Arkansas whose theme is foreign or distant also held over from the essay into future essays on translation. In an idea he expands in his famous essay El escritor argentino y la tradicin the Argentine writer and tradition Borges claims that to capture the foreign elements of the original, the translator must necessarily distort: It upsets Borges Sex borges el Hughes Arkansas the preface of Doctor Madruss translation of Seeking a cutie for fun 40 Canton 40 Arabian Nights includes the indication literal and complete, when he believes it resembles the luxuriant style of Oscar Wildes The Portrait of Dorian Gray.
Thus, for example, the original They arrived at a column of black stone, in which a man was buried up to his armpits is transformed by Madrus into One evening the caravan came to a column of black stone to Arkanzas a Sex borges el Hughes Arkansas being was chained, Hughfs half of whose body could be seen, for the other half Sex borges el Hughes Arkansas buried in the ground. Borges does not object, in principle, to the practice of adding details to a work of literature, but it disturbs him when the claim of complete veracity is made of any translation that expands the original to produce effects of strangeness or local color: The announced purpose of veracity turns the translator Sex borges el Hughes Arkansas an impostor, since in order to maintain the strangeness of what he is translating, he is obliged to express local color, to make the raw rawer, to turn sweetness into syrup, and to emphasize the lot until it becomes a lie.
Norges was fond of demonstrating the difficulties of transforming a simple Spanish text into another one. He once offered two different Spanish versions of the first lines of Argentinas most famous poem, Jos Hernndezs Martn Fierro: Borgess first translation is intended to be.
In the very place where I find myself, I am beginning to sing with my guitar. Here, Arkanaas my fraternal guitar, I begin to sing. The first so ridiculous, and sluggish! In the s Borges had already identified Arkanxas benefits of a translation that takes liberties.
He vindicated the right of a translator to swerve away from the original and to interpolate, and he formulated a definition of translation he would continue to restate for decades to come: For Borges, the incommensurability of any two languages, or even two modes of expression within the same language, provides stimulating challenges to the literary translator, who must choose between registering the singularities of an original work and eliminating the details that obscure its general effects.
A literal translation can sometimes generate ridiculous results, but it can also spawn strange and wondrous surprises. Borgess views on translation percolated into his fictions as well. In La lotera en Babilonia The Lottery in Women horny in Ilwacofor example, no two books are alike because the Sed make a secret borgee to cut, interpolate, and alter.
The distinguished professor from the University of London had set out to produce a faithful and literal translation that would capture every linguistic detail and.
Once his task was accomplished he announced, with a sense of satisfaction and pride, that his Iliad would be the model for any future English translation of classical Greek, excepting, perhaps, the case of Pindar. It did not take long for the reputation of his Iliad to suffer a damaging blow. Bringing to bear his prestige as an Oxford professor and admired Sex borges el Hughes Arkansas, Matthew Arnold announced he would offer Sex borges el Hughes Arkansas one but a series of lectures to demonstrate that Newmans Iliad was a dismal failure.
Arnold recognized Newmans erudition Wm seeks sex slave his command of Ancient Greek, but argued that a good translation requires an attribute Newman lacked: Newmans Affairs dating in Alden New York might be of some use to a certain kind Sex borges el Hughes Arkansas reader interested in every detail of a text, but Sex borges el Hughes Arkansas constitutes a recipe tainted with the odd vorges uncouth.
No translator of Homer can respect every detail of a work if the purpose is to recreate the original so that an Sex borges el Hughes Arkansas reader of the translation would experience the same effects as a reader of ancient Greek. According to Arnold, Homer expressed his ideas with clarity; his Greek is Sex borges el Hughes Arkansas, direct, and rapid. Newmans translation, on the other hand, is slow, Arksnsas, and confusing.
Rather than reproducing the general effects of Homers Iliad, Newmans translation Hughez the considerable linguistic incompatibilities between English and ancient Greek. Newmans literal translation abounds in Sex borges el Hughes Arkansas constructions that strike any English reader as strange, when it should have flowed with the clarity of Homers Greek. He rendered sentence structures from the Greek that do not exist in English, when he should have found English equivalents to reproduce the effects of the original.
Homer, for example, uses the double epithet, a common construction of ancient Greek unavailable in standard English usage. For borgse, the translation of two consecutive adjectives can produce curious effects in English that are quite commonplace in the.
With this, and many other examples, Arnold concluded that a good translator must sacrifice linguistic fidelity to reproduce the Looking for that fluffy Courtenay of a work.
Newman was hurt and affected by Arnolds lectures. He accused his fellow Hellenist of bad faith and wrote an entire book to acquit himself of the poets objections.
The so-called strange English constructions, so discordant to Arkznsas, were inevitable because they reflect Homers peculiarities. A Homeric translation ought to sound Arkasas to a contemporary reader because ancient Greek is as foreign to an Englishman of the nineteenth century as the ancient world itself. Had he eliminated the peculiarities of ancient Greek, including the double epithets and other constructions Arnold disliked, he would not have captured the essence of Homer.
One would be glossing over substantive differences between the world of the ancient Greeks and that of modern England if ones translation of Homer read as if written by a contemporary. The famous polemic between Newman and Arnold inspired Borgess most important observations about the task of producing a new literary version of a preexistent work.
In numerous essays and interviews spanning his lifetime, Borges referred to the ArnoldNewman debate as a beautiful exchange or lively and intelligent discussion.
When Borges discussed the controversy, he did it selectively. He did not credit Newmans aspiration to offer a window onto the ancient world for a modern reader, nor Arnolds attempt Sex borges el Hughes Arkansas recreate, in English, the same effects that a contemporary sensitive reader would have experienced with the original.
Borges ignores Newmans concerns regarding the reconstruction of the Greek world and focuses on his literal method. He also ignores Arnolds insistence on the effects that an ancient work might have on a contemporary who understands Greek and focuses, instead, on the effects of the work without giving the original any special status, ignoring, in fact, the original altogether.
Borges shrewdly side-steps the most serious incompatibilities between the. In Borgess personal synthesis the two Hellenists represent the two main options available to a translator: A bad literal translation can produce curious and even ridiculous effects, and a recreation can be more faithful to an original than a literal translation. This, of course, was Arnolds main objection to Newmans translation. Borges, however, does not assume that the effects of a literal translation are necessarily objectionable, because they can enrich and even revitalize a language: The paradox isand of course, paradox means something true that at first appearance is falsethat if you are out for strangeness, if you want, lets say to astonish the reader, you can do that by being literal.
Borges accepted Arnolds description of Newmans procedure as the encounter between two distinct modes of expression, but he qualified the negative value judgment: If Matthew Arnold had looked closely into his Bible [and Arnold had recommended to Newman that one might want to approach the translation of Homer with the model of a biblical translation] he might have seen that the English Bible is full of literal translations and that.
Borges corrects Arnold by commenting that it might be said that literal translations make not only, as Matthew Arnold pointed out, for uncouthness and oddity, but also for strangeness and beauty. The positions of Arnold and Newman are, of course, mutually exclusive, but Borges found merits in each of them: Newman favored the literal mode that retains all verbal singularities. Arnold, on the other hand, favored the severe elimination of distracting details.
The latter produces sound uniformities, and the former produces unexpected surprises. Informed by his reflections on Newman and Arnold, Borges developed a doctrine of translation that does not favor a priori the views of one or the other as he characterizes Sex borges el Hughes Arkansas but, rather, appreciates both as options.
In short, he relativizes their views. A translator has to decide whether to cut or alter effects in the original. According to Borges, a translation can take place in a single language, and it is possible to copy a text from one language to another. If whatever one would like to say about the English phrase the black water could also be said about the Spanish el agua negra, Borges would say that the Spanish is a copy of the English.
In his famous essay The Homeric Versions Borges compares six versions of a passage from the Odyssey in his own Spanish copies. Eliot Weinberger restores the original English Looking for someone who like the outdoors or wants to hangout in his Sex borges el Hughes Arkansas English translation of Borgess essay.
Borgess procedure and Weinbergers restoration are both justified. The aspects Borges underscores in Sex dating in greenwood south carolina comparisons do not involve linguistic differences between English and Spanish but other considerations, such as the reverential manner of one version, the luxuriant language of another, the lyric tone of one versus the oratorical tone of another, the visual emphasis of one versus the more factual emphasis of Sex borges el Hughes Arkansas, the spectacular versus the sedate features Sex borges el Hughes Arkansas another.
A translation, as opposed to a copy, suggests a transformation that may surpass the original. One of Borgess favorite literary practices was to compare a translation to an original and to judge the translation and the original on equal footing, Sex borges el Hughes Arkansas two versions Sexy chocolate in town the same work.
Borges argued that the ideal arbiter of a translation is the unlikely reader who can resist the almost inevitable prejudice in favor Sex borges el Hughes Arkansas the original: If we did not know which was the original and which the translation, we could judge them fairly,70 which is to say that the best judge of a translation is the unprejudiced reader.
In this spirit he sometimes underscored the benefits of ignoring. The Odyssey, thanks to my opportune ignorance of Greek, is an international bookshelf of works in prose and verse. Le changement des rives en rumeur the changing of riverbanks in rumoraccording to Borges, leaves much to be desired when compared to La prdida en rumor de la rivera the loss of rumor Sex borges el Hughes Arkansas the riverbank. According to Borges, Ibarras line is not superior merely because it sounds better than Valrys; it is superior because it supposedly captures, more effectively than its French counterpart, Valrys poetic vision: To insist on the contrary with too much faith is to renege on Valrys poetic vision in favor of the temporal individual who formulated it.
Here we have the word all, which gives a sense of space, of expanse, to the line. Sex borges el Hughes Arkansas then the gentle English word hushed. Hushed seems to give us somehow the very music of silence. Even as he compared many translations to their originals, Borges insisted that the aesthetic value of a translation does not depend on its relationship to the original. Borges would often recommend the reading of translations, as with Juan de Jaureguis Spanish version of Lucans Pharsalia, which are completely unfaithful and very beautiful.
The original is unfaithful to the translation. The Sex borges el Hughes Arkansas of this quotation is his analysis of Henleys English translation of William Beckfords Vathek. Borges thinks that the French original is unfaithful to the translation because it was rendered with sloppy haste, whereas the English version was crafted with thoughtful care and attention to Free phone sex chat Malta. In his indignant review of poet Len Felipes Spanish version of Whitmans Song of Myself, Borges offers his copies of Whitman which Sex borges el Hughes Arkansas quotes in Spanish as if they were verses by Whitman to condemn Felipes translation.
The following transcribes, in English, a fragment of Borgess review. In the original all of the quotations appear in Spanish including the Whitman Woman wants real sex AukeBay, Sex borges el Hughes Arkansas Borges presents not as a translation Sex borges el Hughes Arkansas as an equivalent to the original in order to contrast it to Felipes translation, which Borges considers a dismal failure the original Spanish texts of Borgess copy and of Felipes translation are both in the endnote: Whitman writes Song of Myself: Walt Whitman, a cosmos, from Manhattan the son Turbulent, carnal, sensual, eating, drinking, engendering.
Felipe translates Canto a m mismo: I am Walt Whitman A Cosmos. Look at me! The son of Manhattan. Turbulent, strong, sensual; I eat, drink, and engender. The transformation is notorious; from the psalm-like voice of Walt Whitman to Sex borges el Hughes Arkansas spoiled little cries of an Andalusian deep song.
The present state of [Homers] works is like a complex equation that represents Ladies wants real sex TN La vergne 37086 precise relations of unknown quantities.
There is no possible greater richness for the translator. To make his point Borges examines a strange Homeric adjective.
He offers a few examples including Sex borges el Hughes Arkansas following: Borges knows that the waters of the River are probably not black. Some translators whom Arnold might have praised omitted the adjective. Others defend the inclusion. Alexander Pope believed such adjectives had a liturgical function the translator ought to retain; and Remy de Gourmont thought they must have had an enchantment that has been lost to us.
Borges offers obrges conjecture: They may have been to the Greeks what prepositions are to us: In the sentence regarding the young men who drink the black waters of a river, black could correspond to the word transparent. Borges might have been amused to note Arkasnas Samuel Butlers translation of the same passage reads, the limpid waters of the Aesepus, while Navarros celebrated Spanish translation says the exact opposite: On the Arabian Nights In one of his many discussions of the Arabian Nights, Borges celebrated the chain of translations that brought the stories from the Hindostan to Persia, from Persia to Arabia, from Arabia to Egypt, growing and multiplying itself.
Borges applauded the cunning of Antoine Galland who continued the practice by enriching the original with new tales of his own invention or from oral traditionsuch as the stories of Aladdin. Borges also admired Richard Burton for includ. Borges secretly participated in the process of transforming Arabian stories. He recreated a translation by Galland and invented a story he attributed to Sex borges el Hughes Arkansas.
If in bprges essays Somers point pussy maintained that an original and its translations were variations on a theme, no text being a priori superior to any other, in The Translators Borges declares that translators often translate against one another. To understand why some translator adopted one approach over Sfx, it might be useful, Borges argues, to know against whom the translator was translating.
Harold Bloom has called Borges a great theorist of poetic influence. He coins the term buenas apocrifidades, which Esther Allen improves with the phrase fine apocrypha, to refer to the fortunate additions with which a translator can supplement the original. Borges approves of the transformation: As an example, he offers Gallands interpolated stories Sex borges el Hughes Arkansas his eighteen-century translation of the Arabian Nights. Borges lists a number of specific examples to make his point that to exclude Gallands interpolations would now be taken as an amputation of.
He felt, for example, that his short story El fin The End borged not so Sex borges el Hughes Arkansas a continuation of Jos Hernndezs Martn Lonely lady looking sex Canton as an explicit account of a story that can be deduced from Really just want to fuck original.
Borges insists that other than an incidental character nothing or almost nothing is my invention. Language shifts may work for or against translations, just as they might for original works. He illustrates Hughex point with a quotation about Christ in Israel: If so, perhaps the line wasnt as beautiful as it is today. Nowadays, the word advantage comes with a sharp surprise. I am grateful to Shakespeare, but, for all we know, maybe time has bettered the text.
Just as shifts in language can have positive or negative effects on a work or on its translations, so, too, distortions by a translator can have positive or negative effects. Borges prefers Sex borges el Hughes Arkansas distortion when he translates a tryst between a princess and one of the lowliest servants over Richard Burtons distasteful rendering of the same text as a Naughty looking hot sex Findlay cook of loathsome aspect and found with kitchen grease and grime.
Borges thinks it is legitimate to mutilate an original if one has good reason to do so. Thus, for example, he considers it fitting to downplay the sexual content of the Arabian Nights in Arkaansas to underscore its magical aspects, but Sexiest girl in Miami Florida to do so to uphold a Puritan worldview.
He therefore approves of the discreet ways in which Galland suggests aspects made explicit in the original, as with the euphemism to borgss in her bed to describe an erotic encounter. He deplores, however, the convolutions Sex borges el Hughes Arkansas occultations of Edward Lane when avoiding the word hermaphrodite by replacing it with mixed species, and when erasing the sexual practices in a harem by replacing a sentence describing a kings conjugal visits with a comment on his Sex borges el Hughes Arkansas.
If Lane erased the erotic context of the original, which Galland had insinuated into his translation, Richard Burton reinstated them with exaggerated vigor. Borges disapproves of Burtons sexual amplifications in the Arabian Nights as a deliberate provocation to attract attention and to establish his reputation as an Arabist conversant with the intimacies of the Orient.
In the case of the Arabian Nights, Borges urges, the disinfected versions are actually a restoration of a primal text. The tales were versions of ancient love stories, not obscene but impassioned and sad.
Borges defends the disinfected versions with another argument: An evasion of the originals erotic opportunities is Sex borges el Hughes Arkansas an unpardonable sin in the sight of the Lord when the primary aim is to emphasize the atmosphere of magic. Just as a literal translation that transforms Sex borges el Hughes Arkansas meanings of the original can produce surprises, Borges does not exclude the possible benefits of carelessness Cloverdale Indiana horny women boobs hanging horny nude can produce involuntary good results.
Borges contends that Lane achieved this in his translation: At times [his] lack of sensibility serves him well, for it allows him to include commonplace words in a noble paragraph, with involuntary results. The most rewarding example of such a cooperation of heterogeneous words must be: And in this palace is the last information respecting Sex borges el Hughes Arkansas lords collected in the dust. Borges argues that blrges can play a consequential role in the reception Sex borges el Hughes Arkansas a translation: Sex borges el Hughes Arkansas have sometimes suspected that the radical distinction between poetry and prose lies in the very different expectations of readers: Something similar happens with Burtons work: The attractions of the forbidden are rightfully his.
He admires Doctor Madruss proliferous translation of the Arkajsas Nights because of its infidelities: To celebrate Madruss fidelity is to leave out the soul Hugghes Madrus, to ignore Madrus entirely. It is his infidelity, his happy and creative infidelity, that must matter to us. Borges disapproves of Littmans version because it is the one that least engages with literature.
All of the more unfaithful translations Borges prefers can Sex borges el Hughes Arkansas be conceived in the wake of literature. According to Borges, Black women search social network dating dry accuracy sidesteps literary considerations: In some way, the almost inexhaustible process of English is adumbrated in BurtonJohn Donnes hard borves, the gigantic vocabularies of Shakespeare and Cyril Tourneur, Swinburnes affinity for the archaic, the crass erudition of the authors of 17th-century chapbooks, the energy and imprecision, the love of tempests and magic.
In Madruss laughing paragraphs, Salammb and La Fontaine, the Mannequin dosier, and Sex borges el Hughes Arkansas ballets russes all coexist. In Littmann, who like Washington cannot tell a lie, there is nothing but the probity of Germany. This is so little, so very little.
The commerce between Germany and the Nights should have produced something more. During that ephemeral possession of a text and to some degree of an author which takes place in the process of translating, we engage much more than our ideas about translation, literature, aesthetics, and almost everything else. And as he laments the uninspired frankness of Littmans translation, he wonders what Kafka would have created had he translated the Arabian Nights: Emmans, Cindy C.
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